AC (Alternating Current)
It is the kind of Electricity EV motors run on. It is a charge of electricity that regularly changes direction. It is the kind of power that comes from the power plant to homes and businesses.
AER (All-Electric Range)
It is the range any EV is able to reach solely using electricity.
Ah (Ampere hours)
This is a unit of electric charge, most EV makers quote kWh (kilowatt hours) sometimes you may see Ah instead
Alternative Fuel Vehicle
A motor vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petrol or diesel. It includes engines that don’t solely rely on petroleum such as PHEV, EV, FCEVS, but also includes HEVs.
A unit used to measure electric current. It is usually used in the context of EV charging.
It is the negative electrode in a battery. It is a part of the battery that releases electrons during discharge
BMS (Battery Management System)
It is an electronic system that manages and protects the battery
It is the EV equivalent of a petrol tank. It stores the electrical energy the EV’s motor converts into A-to-B motion.
BEV (Battery Elecric Vehicle)
A type of EV that runs purely on electric power.
The part of the battery on which the current leaves the cell. They are always positive.
CCID (Charge Circuit Interrupting Device)
A safety protection component within an EVSE that reduces the chance of a person getting an electric shock.
CCS (Combined Charging System)
A widespread plug and charging port design standard. CCSs often use the SAE J1772, which is the North American electrical standard for Electric Vehicles.
Cd (Co-efficient of drag)
Measure of how well a vehicle is shaped to slip through the air. A good Cd rating is anything below 0.30 and a bad one is anything above 0.40.
It is a method developed to quickly charge Electric Vehicles through the use of a special adapter that delivers up to 62.5 kW. Commonly used in Japan.
Charging / Re-charging
EVs have to be plugged in to recharge their batteries, just like petrol cars have to have their fuel tanks filled.
DC (direct current)
DC electricity flows in one direction, which is what makes it different from AC electricity. Batteries can only store DC electricity.
DC Charging (Level 3 Charging)
The fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour.
The combination single-speed transmissions and electric motors that give EVs horsepower and torque.
Electric motors are inherently far more efficient than petrol engines. Almost all the energy in an EV’s battery pack makes it to the road.
Described most simply, electricity is the movement of electrons. The way the electrons move is different for AC and DC (see other entries).
EREV (Extended-range electric vehicles)
Vehicles that have the ability to run on a gasoline engine if the battery gets low
EV (Electric vehicle)
An all-around term for BEVs, PHEVs and REx, but often used to refer to pure electric vehicle (BEVs)
EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment)
Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs.
EVSE stands for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. It is the equipment used to charge electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). EVSE typically includes the charging station and cord that connect the vehicle to the power source. EVSE can also include features such as a display screen, payment system, and communication capabilities.
There are different types of EVSE, including Level 1, Level 2, and DC fast charging stations. Level 1 and Level 2 charging stations are typically used for overnight charging at home or at public charging stations, while DC fast charging stations are used for quick charging on-the-go.
FCEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle)
Vehicles that use fuel cell – typically containing hydrogen – instead of a battery (or alongside a battery) to generate electricity to power an electric motor.
GHG (Green House Gas)
A gas such as Carbon Dioxide that contributes to global warming through the absorption of infrared radiation.
Government policies to encourage electric vehicle ownership, typically by reducing purchase costs through rebates or tax incentives, and allowing entry to bus lanes or freeway high occupancy vehicle lanes.
HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle)
Also known as full hybrid or self-charging hybrid. An HEV utilizes a dual system of electric propulsion and an internal combustion engine. The main types are full, mild and plug-in hybrid.
Term to describe when a conventional vehicle with an internal-combustion engine is parked in the designated EV parking space adjacent to a charger, blocking its use.
ICEV (Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle)
All vehicles that are powered by Fossil Fuels are ICEVs.
It is a type of connectors that is used to charge Electric Vehicles in Europe.
This is a part of the EV drivetrain that gets less attention than the motor or battery, but it plays a critical role. What the inverter does is convert the DC electricity stored in an EV battery pack into the AC electricity its motor needs.
A unit of electric power. The basic measurement of an EV’s power that is generated by its batteries.
This is the standard way to measure electrical energy–how much power (kilowatts) it can supply over a period of time (hours).
kWh/100km (Kilowatt-hours per 100km)
It is how energy consumption is calculated in electric vehicles. It’s very similar to the way fuel consumption is calculated in internal-combustion cars as litres per 100km.
Level 1 Charging
The type of charging usually done at home because it uses a typical 120-volt electrical outlet. The slowest method of charging an EV that will take up to 24 hours or more.
Level 2 Charging
Charges your EV at 240v using an installed outlet. Level 2 chargers are the most recommended chargers to EV owners.
LIB (Lithium-ion battery)
Also known as a Li-ion, it is a common rechargeable battery.
Molten salt battery
A type of battery that utilizes molten salts as an electrolyte.
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Two basic types of electric motor are commonly used in EVs:
- Asynchronous: Also known as the AC induction motor, this elegantly simple device is robust and inexpensive.
- Synchronous: In this type of electric motor the rotor moves in sync with the magnetic fields running around the stator. There are two sub-types of synchronous motor.
- One uses permanent magnets, which can be stuck to the outside of the rotor or embedded inside it.
- The other kind uses electricity to generate a magnetic field in the rotor, avoiding the need for permanent magnets that are usually made of costly rare earth metals like neodymium.
NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle)
BEV’s that are limited to streets with lower speed limits, typically around 45mph. NEV’s are all-electric and can be recharged using a standard outlet.
NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)
A less reliable rechargeable battery.
Off Peak Charging
Term used when charging your electrical vehicle at certain lowest cost off-peak hours.
PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
It contains a battery that is able to be charged with an external electric power source, PHEVs are a mixture of all electric vehicles and ICEV’s.
PiV (Plug-in vehicle)
A blanket term for any vehicle with a plug socket, including BEVs and PHEV
Power expresses a motor’s work rate. More power means quicker acceleration and, often, a higher top speed.
The total distance an electric vehicle can travel on one full charge before the battery needs to be recharged.
The feeling for EV owners when they’re worried when the remaining battery charge will not let them reach their destination or the next charging station.
Regenerative braking is energy recycling. It’s one of the key reasons hybrids are so fuel efficient, and it also boosts the driving range of EVs and PHEVs.
Energy sources that continuously replenished, such as solar, hydro, wind, etc.
REx (Range-extended EV)
An EV that has only an electric drivetrain, but a small petrol generator to charge the battery when range is depleted for longer trips. Often considered a type of PHEV.
The standard North American electrical connection for Electric Vehicles. Generally, it works with Level 1 and Level 2 systems.
SOC (State of Charge)
the usual term for how much energy remains in a battery pack. SOC is the EV equivalent of a fuel gauge.
Solid state batteries
a rechargeable energy storage system similar in overall structure and operation to the more familiar lithium-ion battery. Right now, these batteries are expensive so they are not mass produced in EVs.
Like a battery, can store electrical energy. Their energy density is superior to traditional capacitors.
One of the EV makers in the industry. They are currently dominating the EV market.
A super-fast charging system that can provide up to 120 kW directly to the car’s battery. Currently these systems are only available to Tesla Cars.
Torque is the pulling power of the motor. More torque means more effortless acceleration.
Type 2 charging plug
A seven-pin plug that is now the standard charging plug for EVs in Australia. It also forms the basis for the high-powered CCS charging system, which adds two DC pins below the Type 2 plug.
ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle)
A car that has official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km.
V2G (vehicle to grid)
Allows an electric car to feed electricity back into the power grid.
In an EV, High voltage, within limits, is better. More voltage is the same as having high octane fuel or a turbocharger in a traditional vehicle.
A measure of the electromotive force that drives electrons through a circuit.
VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery)
A rechargeable lead-acid battery.
An additional charging unit that provides power at a higher rate than a standard three-pin plug socket. They typically cost between $1500 and $3000 and will provide between 7.5kW and 22kW of AC power.
The basic measurement of electrical power.
wBMS (Wireless Battery Management System)
A nearly wireless system that balances chemistry within the individual battery cell groups for optimal performance
Wh/kg (Watt-Hours per Kilogram)
A unit of specific energy. Equates to battery energy divided by battery mass
Wh/L (Watt-Hours per Liter)
A unit of energy density. Equates to battery energy divided by battery volume.
WLTP (Worldwide harmonised Light-vehicle Testing Procedure)
A global harmonised standard for determining levels of pollutants and emissions, fuel consumption, and electrical range.